PHYSICAL SCIENCE - Public | Print |
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PHYSICAL SCIENCE (5-8) and (9-12)

PROPERTIES OF MATTER and CHANGES IN THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER - Physical properties: density, boiling point, melting point, viscosity and solubility. Mixtures and separation techniques. Substances react to form new substances. In chemical reactions, the total mass is conserved. Substances can be classified by their properties. An element is composed of a single type of atom. The "Periodic Table" is a representation of the known elements. Elements combine to form compounds. A compound is formed when two or more elements combine chemically. Atoms transfer or share electrons. Solids, liquids, and gases differ in the distances between molecules and the energy that binds them together.

STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
- Matter is made of tiny particles called atoms, which have sub-atomic particles that have measurable properties, such as mass and electrical charge and a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The electric force between the nucleus and electrons holds the atom together. An element with atoms that differ in the number of neutrons are called isotopes of the element. Fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller pieces. Fusion is the joining of two nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure. Radioactive isotopes are unstable and undergo spontaneous nuclear reactions, emitting particles and/or wavelike radiation. The decay of any one nucleus cannot be predicted, but a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate, enabling us to estimate the age of materials that contain radioactive isotopes.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS -
Chemical reactions release (exothermic) or consume energy (endothermic). Reactions can be combination, decomposition, displacement and exchange. Light initiates photosynthesis. Reaction rates depend on concentration, surface area, temperature, and the presence of a catalyst (enzymes).
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Concept Map NOTES PRACTICE TESTS Concept Map NOTES PRACTICE TESTS
Study Cards Fluids PS-FD-1test Study Cards Classifying Matter
PS-CC-1test
Set 1 Particle Model PS-FD-2test Set 1 Elements
PS-CC-2test
Set 2 Fluid Properties PS-FD-3test Set 2 Periodic Table PS-CC-PTable
Fluid Technologies PS-FD-4test
Compounds/Reactions PS-CC-3test
PS-FD-UTtest

PS-CC-4test
    PS-CC-UTtest
MOTIONS AND FORCES - Motion is described by position, direction of motion, speed and can be measured and represented on a graph. Objects can be subjected to forces. Forces acting on an object will reinforce or cancel one another, depending on their direction and magnitude. Unbalanced forces will cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion. Laws of motion. Gravitation is a universal force. Electric force is a universal force between two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. Electricity and magnetism are related. Electric charges produce magnetic forces, and moving magnets produce electric forces (motors and generators).
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Concept Map NOTES PRACTICE TESTS
Study Cards Types of Structures
PS-SF-1test
Set 1 Forces PS-SF-2test
Set 2 Strength and Stability
PS-SF-3test
Set 3 Design and Evaluation PS-SF-4test
Set 4 PS-SF-UTtest
Bridge Types
TRANSFER OF ENERGY - The total energy of the universe is constant. Energy can be transferred many ways and can never be destroyed. All energy can be considered kinetic energy (energy of motion); potential energy, or electromagnetic energy. Heat consists of motion and the vibrations of atoms, molecules, and ions. The higher the temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion. In energy transfers (conduction, radiation, or convection), energy is uniform.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
- Energy is associated with heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound, and chemicals. Energy can be transferred and transformed. Heat moves from warmer objects to cooler ones. Light interacts with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, or scattering (including reflection). To see an object, light from that object—emitted by or scattered from it—must enter the eye. Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy when heat, light, sound, and chemical changes are produced. In most chemical and nuclear reactions, energy is transferred into or out of a system. Heat, light, mechanical motion, or electricity might all be involved in such transfers. The sun is a major source of energy, radiated through space to the earth, as light with a range of wavelengths, consisting of visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation.

INTERACTIONS OF ENERGY AND MATTER
- Waves, including sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves, have energy and can transfer energy when they interact with matter. Electromagnetic energy waves include radio waves (the longest wavelength), microwaves, infrared radiation (radiant heat), visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays. Energy wavelengths can be used to identify a substance.

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Concept Map NOTES PRACTICE TESTS Concept Map NOTES PRACTICE TESTS
Study Cards Theories of Heat
PS-TE-1test Study Cards Timeline PS-LO-1test
Set 1 The Particle Model
PS-TE-2test Set 1 Reflection
PS-LO-2test
Set 2 Sources of Energy
PS-TE-3test Set 2 Refraction PS-LO-3test
Set 3 Energy Alternatives
PS-TE-4test
Properties of Light
PS-LO-4test
Set 4 PS-TE-UTtest
Images PS-LO-UTtest


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Concept Map NOTES PRACTICE TESTS Concept Map NOTES PRACTICE TESTS
Study Cards Simple/Complex Machines
PS-MS-1test Study Cards Static/Current/Cells PS-EP-1test
Set 1 MA/SR/Work/Efficiency PS-MS-2test Set 1 Safety/Circuits PS-EP-2test
Set 2 Evaluating Machines
PS-MS-3test Set 2 Generators/Motors PS-EP-3test
Set 3 PS-MS-UTtest Set 3 Energy Transformations
PS-EP-4test

Set 4 PS-EP-UTtest